The Southern Italian Ministry of Magic, also known as the Mezzogiorno Ministry, is the governing body of the regions within southern Italy. The Ministry's headquarters is located in a manor in Campania known "government building." Unlike in the Muggle world, magical Italy is politically divided between north and south. Animosity between the two sides goes back centuries, but the biggest stress of relations was the formation of the Italian Ministry of Magic during the mid 19th century, around the same time as the Muggle Risorgimento. For centuries, Italy was divided between many different states, but the wizards of the various states were united by the League of Italian Wizards, a supranational entity that promoted cooperation between the various states, but kept their independence intact.

When Muggle Italy unified, the Magical world figured it was time to do the same. Under renowned philosopher Giacomo Auguri, who led a group of voting wizards known as the "Unity Bloc," the League of Italian Wizards voted to dissolve their respective governments and unify. Many were against unification from both sides of the peninsula, with many accusing Auguri of electoral fraud. Despite opposition, Auguri went forward with his unification plan, but he soon learned that it would not be a simple task. The then-First Minister Roberto Luciano of the Two Sicilies was ousted in a coup by various high-ranking Aurors determined to resist the unification. What followed was two years of conflict, leading to hundreds of deaths. In 1863, the Italian Ministry came to the negotiating table and the conflict ended, with the rebel-held areas mostly south of Rome being given independence.