The Magical Duma of the Russian Federation is the governing body that governs the magical population of greater Russia, which geographically corresponds to modern Muggle Russia, Central Asia, Transcaucasia. The Magical Duma is a unicameral legislature headed by a Chairman, with its headquarters being located in St. Petersburg. As of 2017, the Chairman of the Magical Duma is Boris Kasyanov.

The Magical Duma in its current form was established in the late 19th century, replacing the former House of Warlocks which had represented the magical community of Russia since the days of Ivan the Terrible. The Duma's most troubling years were during the Bolshevik Revolution and the Russian Civil War, where the collapse of the Russian Empire had a major effect on the wizarding communities. Due to the secluded nature of wizarding society, much of the hardships experience by Muggles that led to the birth of the violent revolution and adoption of Marxist belief did not happen in wizarding Russia, and as such, support for the Muggles' overthrow of the Romanovs had no popular support with Wizards.

However, a radical minority of witches and wizards, known infamously as Krasnota, launched their own revolution against the government. Although they eventually lost, they remained a thorn in the government's side until its final dissolution in 1994. The Duma severed all relations with the Soviet Union and operated completely independent of the Soviet Government and continued to claim to be the magical government of the Russian Empire.