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The Anemas (pl. Anemai; Greek: Ανεμάς, -αι) were an imperial and royal house of Greek origin, and of great importance in both the muggle and the wizarding worlds. It was allegedly founded during the 10th century by An-Nu'man ibn Abd al-Aziz, the captured son of the last Emir of Crete, who upon settling in Constantinople, converted to Orthodox Christianity and joined the imperial army as a member of the imperial bodyguard.

Four Anemas brothers took part in a conspiracy against Alexios I Komnenos in 1105; two of them are known by name, Leo and Michael. The family retained a prominent position, however, during the Komnenian period: Manuel Anemas managed to marry a daughter of John II Komnenos, and other members appear to have married with the Angelos and Doukas families, who belonged to the highest Roman aristocracy.

Although the family declined during the 12th century, they rose to prominence in the 14th century due to an affair of emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos with Eunike Anemina, which led to the birth of Stephanos Anemas, who took the name of his mother's family and was appointed by his father as the Strategos of what remained of the Theme of Opsikion with hereditary privilege. Despite this, the Anemid descendants of Stephanos would ally themselves with the expanding Ottomans, knowing that the Empire would not survive against the Turkish menace. As such, after the fall of Constantinople, the House of Anemas would maintain control over the area of Nicaea, and in return they gave their full loyalty to the Ottoman Sultan. Shortly after the fall of Constantinople, the head of the Anemas dynasty would marry Eudokia Palaiologina, granddaughter of Constantine XI Palaiologos, uniting the two houses once more, and inheriting the Palaiologoi claims to the Roman throne.

The House of Anemas would eventually betray their Turkish masters, giving way to the Nicaean Revolution, which led to the creation of the independent Kingdom of Nicaea, and the semi-independent Imperial State of Constantinople. The effects of this rebellion would be felt in mainland Greece as well, as the Greeks would also revolt against the Ottoman Empire, eventually allowing the creation of the Kingdom of Greece, which was then given to the King of Nicaea, allowing for the restoration of the Roman Empire.

History

Early history

There are differing accounts regarding the origin of the Anemas family, although the most accepted theory claims that they descended from An-Nu'mān ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, the son of Abd al-Aziz ibn Shu'ayb, the last Emir of Crete, who were both captured by the empire after the reconquest of Crete. An-Nu'mān came to be known to the Romans as Anemas, this name coming to be inherited by his descendants, who rose to the imperial aristocracy.

Later, during the early Komnenian period, four Anemas brothers took part in a conspiracy against Alexios I Komnenos, attempting to depose the emperor. Although this plot failed, the family remained in a prominent position, members marrying into the Komnenos, Angelos, and Doukas families, these three belonging to the highest aristocracy in the Roman Empire. However, during the reign of the Palaiologoi, a member of the family, Eunike Anemina, came to have an affair with Andronikos III Palaiologos, leading to the birth of a boy, who was given the name Stephanos Anemas. Though Stephanos was illegitimate, his father valued and cared for him, demonstrated by granting him the Theme of Opsikion with hereditary privilege, and protection against political rivals that would seek to raise Stephanos to the throne, which would either end with his successor's political mutilation or that of Stephanos.

Anemids and the Ottoman Empire

However, the House of Anemas would turn from Constantinople to the Ottoman Sultan, who was quickly advancing into Asia Minor and mainland Greece. Wanting to remain in power, the House of Anemas betrayed the Emperor and swore fealty to the Ottoman Empire, abolishing the Theme of Opsikion, turning it into the Beylik of Anatolia. The Anemids would remain as vassals to the House of Osman for many centuries, relations between the two reaching great heights with both Symeon II of Anatolia and Sultan Murad IV, who were known to history as great friends.

Independence

But the Anemids would also betray their Ottoman masters a few generations later, shortly after Romanos Anemas became the Bey of Anatolia. Romanos would become the leader of the Nicaean Revolution, which drove the Ottomans from the region of Anatolia and Thrace, paving the way for the foundation of both the Kingdom of Nicaea and the Imperial State of Constantinople, under Romanos I, now King of Nicaea and Co-Regent of Constantinople.

The effects of the Nicaean Revolution would also be felt in mainland Greece, as Ottoman presence there became diminished, which gave way for the Greek War of Independence. Nicaea invaded Ottoman territory in Europe once more, driving the Ottoman Empire from Europe, and establishing the Kingdom of Greece, with Alexios Anemas as the head of state. This recovery of territory led to the formal restoration of the Roman Empire, with Alexios being crowned as Alexios VI in Constantinople.

Later history

The House of Anemas remained as the ruling house of the Empire, surviving not only the Liberal Revolutions, but also the rise of Communism, the two World Wars, and the Cold War which followed. It briefly became the ruling house of Portugal due to the marriage of emperor Alexander IV to the Portuguese queen. This however, this lasted only for a year, due to Alexander's death one year after both his and his wife's acclamation as monarchs of Portugal.

In the last decade of the 20th century, the head of house was Henry Anemas, grandson of Alexander IV and his wife.

Appearances

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