The Canadian Ministry of Magic, officially known as the Ministry of Magical Affairs of the Dominion of Canada and many times referred to as simply the Dominion Ministry, is the governing body responsible for the preservation of magical law within the magical community of Canada. The headquarters of the Ministry is located underneath the Aldred Building in Old Montreal. The government is headed by the Viceroy of Magical Affairs.
Canada hosts two public wizarding schools; Ilvermorny School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and Whitestar Academy of Magic, the former located in Lake Nipigon, Ontario and teaches its curriculum in English, while the latter is situated in the Laurentian mountains of Quebec and teaches their curriculum in French. The relationship between the two schools is very healthy and close and is attributed to the closeness of the Anglo and Francophone wizarding populations, leading to a fully bilingual wizarding society. In addition, there are three private institutions, including the Borealis School of Magical Learning, which is poised to become the third public institution of magical education in the country.
Although Muggle Canada is much smaller in terms of population and influence, the magical population of Canada rivals that the United States primarily due to the policies of the Magical Congress of the United States of America. Rappaport's Law, the Americans' treatment of Muggles and the way MACUSA integrated Muggle-born wizards was wildly unpopular with the global wizarding community. As such, this discouraged wizards from immigrating to the country, and during the European crisis that was the Grindelwald Revolution, many witches and wizards fled Europe to escape his terror, nearly all of which ended up in Canada.
Relations with MACUSA
The relationship between wizarding Canada and the wizarding government of their southern neighbour, the Magical Congress of the United States of America, has been historically very tense. The strict segregation of magical and Muggle communities enforced by the Magical Congress and xenophobia that stemmed from such laws sickened most Canadian wizards and war between the Magical Congress and Canadian Ministry was a very real fear for a long time; a militia was created during the Victorian Era that has been mobilized several times in the past century.
Salem Witch Trials, the General Congress and Seven Years' War
Between 1692 and 1693, there was a series of hearings and prosecutions of supposed witches in the Muggle colony of Massachusetts known as the Salem Witch Trials. This was a traumatic event for Wizardkind and directly led to the creation of the General Congress of American Wizards to safeguard the witches and wizards of the new world. This government, however, only included the territory corresponding to British colonies of the East; the French, Spanish and Indians refused to participate in the government. Muggle Canada was still under the rule of the New France colony and wouldn't be ceded to the British until the end of the Seven Years' War.
In the magical realm of the new world, the General Congress took advantage of the Muggle conflict and forcible integrated many wizarding communities, both French and Indian, much to the outrage of the wizarding world. Despite this outrage, there was little done by the French Ministries, leaving the new world colonists to their own devices. Without support, the French communities allied with several Indian tribes and resisted the GENCON occupation in a six-year rebellion. However, the Rebellion consisted of many uncoordinated pockets of resistance and alliances that went up against the united and efficient Aurors of the General Congress. Unable to make a coordinated counterattack, the resistance crumbled by 1762 and the General Congress had considerably increased its territory, now including the Muggle British colonies of Upper and Lower Canada.
The American Revolution and Rappaport's Law
After the American Revolution, the General Congress of American Wizards changed its name to the Magical Congress of the United States of America after its Muggle counterpart. The issue was, the new United States controlled much less territory than its counterpart in the wizarding world, and many criticized the forcing of the American identity on people who held no loyalty to the flag or even sided with the revolutionaries. This created a major crisis within MACUSA as many called for a decentralized government and the dissociation of the government with the United States. These tensions thankfully never boiled over, though MACUSA found it difficult to enforce wizarding law within its communities and many actively defied law, declaring themselves to have no loyalty to the American Flag.
However, all-new tensions would erupt after the crisis that was the idiocy of Dorcus Twelvetrees, who caused the largest breech of the Statute of Secrecy in wizarding history. President Julius Rappaport would then institute the infamous Rappaport's Law, which completely segregated the Muggle and magical communities and incurred harsh penalties for those who married, befriended or even associated with Muggles (or No-Majs as they later became known). This was the last straw for many, as numerous witches and wizards had married Muggles and had relatives or friends who were Muggles.
Open rebellion erupted within MACUSA, mostly from communities in Canada, where most of the defiant magical communities were located. For nearly a year, there was armed insurrection within the country, leading to dozens of deaths. The Magical Congress quickly realized that there was no way they could continue on the effort of subduing the rebels and enforce the law, but President Rappaport was incredibly stubborn and refused to cease the war effort. The Congress then impeached the President in mid-1791 and acting President Leonard Roberts brought the rebels to the negotiating table. On 24 October, 1791, the final draft of the Treaty of York was signed, giving independence to the rebel-held communities of the north.
Early years of the Canadian Ministry
24 October, 1791 was the day that marked the end of the war and the creation of the Canadian Ministry of Magic. The first leader of the government was George A. McInnes, who immediately trashed Rappaport's Law, bolstered the Auror force, passed several laws protecting Muggles and built up a good relationship with the British, renaming his position Viceroy and pledging allegiance to the crown, a move applauded by the majority-British population. The relatively small government was housed in McInnes' estate in York, Upper Canada, where it would remain until its burning in 1813.
McInnes' successor, Charles Hébert, signed treaties with magical communities across Rupert's Land and native communities, greatly enlarging the Ministry and cementing alliances with the Indian communities in these areas. In addition, Hébert met with the Headmasters of both Ilvermorny School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and Whitestar Academy of Magic, giving them both Ministry support and becoming public institutions registered with the Department of Magical Education. After serving two terms in office, Hébert retired in favour of Andrew O'Leary, who's term was cut short when he perished int he McInnes Estate Bombing of 1813.
Important positions of power within the Canadian Ministry such as the post of Viceroy of Magical Affairs are elected by popular vote, but other smaller offices are appointed by the ruling government. Employment with the Ministry is not terribly difficult but most positions require a university education; however, some wizards who show great promise are sometimes allowed to work under a junior program upon completion of their standard wizarding education.
The government as a whole does not have the right to intervene in the affairs of Ilvermorny or Whitestar Academy in regards to punishing students unless they commit a serious crime, nor are they allowed to demand that student's expulsion or, in extreme circumstances, the confiscation of their wand unless an investigation successfully proves the student's guilt.
At the top of the government is the Viceroy, which is the elected leader of the Ministry and voted in by popular vote for a term of six years. Viceroys can be elected as many times as the public elects them but more recently, an unwritten rule has manifested within the government that no Viceroy should seek to be elected for a third consecutive term. This came about after the Viceroyalty of Arthur Macmillan, who became known within wizarding Canada as King Arthur after serving a total of 42 years as Viceroy of Magical Affairs from 1858 to 1900.
The parliament of the Ministry is the General Assembly, a legislative body which comprises of eighty Assemblymen and one Speaker of the Assembly. The Assembly constitutes representatives of Canada, both native and otherwise, and magical creatures, such as the Merpeople off the coast of Vancouver Island, the Crimson Court Vampires, the Werewolves and the Giants.